Plains Tribes Take-home Assignment # 2: Southern Cheyennes, Early Comanches

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Plains Tribes Take-home Assignment # 2: Southern Cheyennes, Early Comanches

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3/9/2020 9:59:04 PM

Due Date:

03/10/2020 23:59



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4     Double-spaced (1200 words)

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Course Work

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Instructions: a. Please answer each question in one, double-spaced, typewritten, page. b. Base your answers on the specific readings addressed in each question. c. Citations Use brief citations, which include the following: 1. Author – last name only needed. For example, use Hamalainen, for the source, Pekka Hamalainen, Comanche Empire. 2. Page numbers. 3. You may indicate author and page numbers either: a. Within the text of your answer, or b. Place these in parentheses at the end of the appropriate paragraph. 4. If you are citing more than one source, use the above method, and separate these sources by a semicolon. 5. There is no need for endnotes, footnotes, or a bibliographic citation of the book. d. Use a Word format document. The take-home assignment settings on Canvas permit only Word documents .doc or .docx files. e. Attach/download your completed assignment on Canvas. First, open the “Plains Tribes Take-home Assignments” module. Within this is the “Plains Tribes Take-home Assignment # 2” file. Open this and attach/download your assignment within this file. This assignment instructions and questions are available within this file. QUESTIONS: 1. On pp. 32-33 of Life of George Bent, Cheyenne mixed-blood George Bent says that in the years 1825-1826, Cheyennes and their Arapaho allies still lived north of the North Fork of the Platte River, near the Black Hills. He recounts that in 1826 a Gros Ventre (Atsina)-Blackfeet war party raided far south against Kiowa and Comanche horse herds on the upper Red River (in either the Texas Panhandle or southwestern Oklahoma. This horse-raiding party reported extensive bison herds between the Arkansas and Platte Rivers. More unusual, they reported an abundance of wild horses, never seen this far north before. Bent notes that very year, 1826, Cheyennes divided, and led by Chief Wolf, the Cheyenne Hevhaitanio [Hairy Men, or Hairy Rope] Band, relocated south of (the South Fork of) the Platte River. They were accompanied by some Arapaho allies, who later became known as Southern Arapahos. Bent says Northern Cheyennes and Northern Arapahos remained in the “old country north of the Platte.” On pp. 33-47, Bent shares many Southern Cheyenne stories about capturing and taming wild horses, and of horse-raiding parties against Kiowas and Comanches. It seems clear that Southern Cheyennes and Southern Arapahos were greatly interested in the increasing number of wild horses on the Central Plains, and the extensive horse herds (wild and those belonging to Kiowas and Comanches) long-known to exist on the Southern Plains. Question: Briefly recount Southern Cheyenne capturing of either: a) wild horses, or b) Kiowa and Comanche horses – as explained in George Bent stories on pp. 33-47. (20 points) Comanche Empire Ch. 1, “Conquest” 2. On pp. 28-37 Hamalainen concisely presents the Comanche conquest of Jicarilla Apaches between 1700 to 1720. He explains the early maturation of Comanche Plains bison and horse cultures, and Comanche-Ute military advantages over Apaches, whose lifestyles remained centered upon Plains villager agricultural practices. Hamalainen also explains the devastating impacts of Comanche disruption of Jicarilla trade relations with northern Rio Grande River pueblo villages, such as Taos. Question: Based on pp. 28-37, present what you believe were the most important Comanche advantages over the Jicarilla Apaches between 1700 and 1720, resulting in Comanche control of the Central-Southern Plains along the upper Arkansas River. (20 points) 3. On pp. 55-62, Hamalainen describes the third phase of Apache conquest during the 1700-1760 period: Comanche expansion south into the Southern Plains of Texas. This began in the early 1750s, led by southern Kotsoteka Comanche bands. Hamalainen believes Comanches were motivated by the needs to expand their bison-horse “economy,” by anger at the Texas-Lipan Apache alliance based upon anti-Comanche concerns, and about the possible need to redirect Comanche trade south to the Red River region, centered at the Spanish-French trade community of Natchitoches. (57-58) Question: Based upon pp. 55-62, what do you believe was the most important reason why southern Kotsoteka bands made the rather dramatic decision to expand far south beyond the Llano Estacado to the Southern Plains of Texas. Briefly explain. (20 points) Ch. 2 “New Order” 4. In this chapter, Hamalainen presents the consolidation of Comanche power during the 1760s and 1770s. Pages 69-90 describe the maturation of the Comanche horse trade network across the Great Plains, and how the northern Spanish colony of New Mexico had become utterly dependent upon Comanches. Pages 90-100 describe how Comanches destroyed the Wichitas, who had formed a military alliance with Texas. By 1766, the northern Spanish colony of Texas was also helplessly at the mercy of Comanches. Question: Choose Comanche domination of either New Mexico or Texas, as presented in this chapter, and explain what you believe were the most important determinants of Comanche power in the case you have selected. (20 points)

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